The Dead Sea is located in the northern part of the tectonically formed Jordan Rift Valley that extends south of Eastern Africa, along the border between Israel and Jordan. It cuts throgh high cliffs and mountain ranges. From the west the rift is flanked by the Judean Mountains, and the Moab plateau on the east.

The Dead Sea is 50 km long and 14 km wide; with the depth of about 390 m. In 2002 its water surface was 413 m below sea level; in 2006 the depression increased to 415 m and the sea itself is considered the lowermost point on earth. Annual precipitation in the area does not exceed 70 ml, with 330 sunny days in the year and air humidity lower than 50%. Under such conditions water evaporation proceeds quickly and as a result the Dead Sea has become the most hypersaline body of water in the world.